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Water shortages in countries in the use of reclaimed water mode Exploration

With the development of the world economy, water resources become increasingly tense, reclaimed water as a steady water resources will be utilized, is an important way to ease the water shortage. Many developed countries will be reduced by the use of clean Ozone water  water, and to reduce the discharge of sewage water recycling of water resources as a concept. As early as in the 19th century, London, Boston, Paris and other cities, there on the legitimate use of renewable water bill Ozone generator introduced, the United States one of the world's oldest national wastewater reuse. After years of development, in the United States, Israel, Japan, Singapore, Australia, Germany, France and other countries, the recycled water has become an ozonator important measure to ease the water crisis, countries to develop a wastewater recycling goals, policies, regulations and standards.
    United States
    In 1920, the United States established in Arizona, the first quality of water supply system to ease the local low rainfall, the problem of lack of fresh water. Currently, the U.S. city use of reclaimed water from the experimental stage into production application stage, reclaimed water as a legitimate alternative water sources, in water shortage multiple cities to establish a water reuse system. Its use of reclaimed water project is mainly distributed in the shortage of water resources, groundwater overexploitation in other states as California, Arizona and Florida.
    The characteristics of the American use of reclaimed water treatment and reuse, rarely used directly in the city life miscellaneous. Reclaimed water is mainly used for agriculture, industry, groundwater recharge, and entertainment, the ratio is roughly as follows: 62% for various irrigation and landscape, and 31.5% for industry, 5% for groundwater recharge, 1.5 for entertainment and fishing.
    U.S. standard of renewable water reuse guidelines for the management and for reuse objects states vary. Such as California, Arizona and Florida launched a renewable water resources management rules and regulations, clear water quality standards and water processing standards, encourage recycled water reuse. As early as 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will be introduced with the parties concerned with the recommended instructions for reclaimed water reuse, including the reuse process water quality requirements, monitoring project with frequency, a safe distance and provisions stating, still may not be able to follow provide important guidance information.
    Florida, according to the characteristics of its concentration of urban water, the basic mode of non-potable water reuse, water supply system for large-scale implementation of the double-barreled urban sewage treatment, about 40% of the tap water price golf course of the water supply, urban greening and construction material, residential area of ​​water in the waterways; Texas, according to the tradition of their own water and hydrogeological characteristics, take "indirect reuse" mode, large-scale sewage treatment underground water recharge.
    The Japan Sewage Recycling work accumulated over 30 years, has achieved some results in terms of comprehensive management, technology development and application. Japanese cities generally form a dual-pipe water supply system, a drinking water system, the other is a reclaimed water system, that the system of "renewable waterways. "Renewable waterways to transport reclaimed water for life miscellaneous, accounting for about 40% of the amount of recycled water reuse. Japan reclaimed water is mainly used for urban miscellaneous, industrial, agricultural irrigation, leakage recharge groundwater recharge.
    In order to promote the development of the cause of reclaimed water, reclaimed water use of administrative departments, local governments and industry associations to develop relevant guidelines, regulations, the just and regulations, etc., to form a complete set of policies and standards. Japan unveiled a "water recycling technology policy of sewage treatment, the flushing water, green water: sewage treatment water recycling guide" sewage treatment water landscape, swimming water quality guidelines, "the use of reclaimed water business operation summary use of reclaimed water sewer career Ordinance "Guide for sewage treatment water reuse water quality standards and, apart from also developed the" water recycling technology guide sewage treatment, sewage treatment water landscape, hydrophilic water quality Guide renewable water quality standards. Local government daily inspection of the reclaimed water quality treatment facilities in export and water supply port.
    Japan reclaimed water water charges set and levied on the basis of considering the recycled water production, transmission and distribution facilities, and maintenance and management costs, for different user objects to develop different water prices: pathway industrial water use reclaimed water use of the public and public interest the lower corporate pay is usually by the use of reclaimed water; renewable water use for landscape water and flushing water, public and nonprofit higher, determined through consultation by the use of the square, sewer management agencies, as well as a total of the public sector, usually recycled water production, transmission and distribution costs by sewer management department burden, while the use of reclaimed water facility pipes and other expenses from the burden of its customers, to connect both distribution mains and other costs decided through mutual consultation.
    Fukuoka, Japan "renewable water recycling demonstration project officially began in 1980, the renewable water supply. As of the end of 2009, the Fukuoka build the two renewable water treatment facilities, the eastern and central water treatment center, renewable water supply of 8800m3 / d, renewable water supply area reached 1304hm2 use of facilities for a total of 350. According to the "Fukuoka City sewer planning 2018", 2018, in Fukuoka renewable water supply area will be expanded to 1.491hm2.
    Fukuoka City reclaimed water production technology constantly improved ozone treatment process before sand filtration technology precipitation solubility of iron, manganese: solubility of recycled water, iron, manganese metal, the filtering process will have been precipitated metal oxide removal; while using increased coagulation and sedimentation process to reduce the load of the reclaimed water production facilities to safeguard the stability of reclaimed water quality.
    Fukuoka implementation of renewable water charges the stepped water price, according to the amount of the monthly renewable water usage in the 1-100m3, charges 150 yen per ton; monthly water consumption between 100-300m3 per ton charge of 300 yen; monthly water consumption of more than 300m3, charges 350 yen per ton.
    Israel is the world's renewable one of the countries with the highest level of water use, almost all families in the country to achieve the tap water and recycled water dual pipe water supply system, 100% sewage and 72% of the municipal wastewater reuse. 2010-2011, the Israeli water annual renewable water conservancy dosage increase to 460 million m3, accounting for about 20% of the total water supply, 36.1% of the amount of agricultural water supply. Dan area (Tel Aviv area), the sea law region and West Jerusalem is Israel's three major sewage treatment system. Reclaimed water used for agricultural irrigation, but also for industrial water, parks and gyms irrigation, cleaning streets, car wash, fire, water, concrete mixing, hotel and office flushing dual water distribution system, recharge groundwater, as well as to prevent the intrusion of sea water.
    Israel's State Administration of Taxation is the government agency responsible for water economy, responsibilities include the management, operation and development of the water economy, protect and restore the natural water resources, the development of new water resources and water producers, consumers supervision, to ensure that water quality and the reliability of wastewater treatment.
    Israeli law requires a unified national price of water, and has the water bill adjustment fund "throughout the country in order to reduce water charges difference. While Israeli water into natural freshwater desalination, saline groundwater, recycled water and intercept rainwater categories, different prices of different categories of water. In addition, the Israeli government also sewage treatment fee charged at 1/3 of the total water consumption. For sewage treatment, water purification otherwise specified price, to encourage recycling and reuse of water resources. In order to implement the replacement project ", that is to encourage agricultural extensive use of recycled water, and government regulations to farmers with water ladder price: the lowest price of water in less than 60% of the water amount, water consumption exceeds more than 80% of the amount of water price highest.
    Israel 1972 began large-scale wastewater reuse, reclaimed water has become its important agricultural water resources, agricultural irrigation of 1/3 of the country to use the city reclaimed water, the amount of agricultural irrigation accounts for 46% of the total sewage treatment, and this the proportion continues to increase. In order to facilitate the agricultural utilization of sewage, Israel the country divided by natural watersheds seven large regions, each region according to the amount of sewage generated use plan is worked out, in some areas, almost all of the sewage got treatment and utilization. For urban sewage treatment and reuse agricultural security issues, Israel's strict control of the city sewage treatment plant influent wastewater heavily polluting enterprises classified management standards before entering the sewage treatment plant, while the crops, vegetables, fruit trees irrigation water quality have put in place more stringent water quality standards.
    Singapore reclaimed water study began in 1988, and was officially launched in February 2003, reclaimed water promotion activities. Singapore reclaimed water most of the supply to the industrial, commercial services, landscaping, and mixed with a small part of the natural water rushed waterworks after further treatment to meet drinking water standards, and indirectly as a drinking water supply.
    Responsible for water resources management in Singapore by the Public Utilities Board. Its water and sewage and wastewater reuse has been very successful one of the main reasons is the all-round attention to water resources management, wastewater and sewerage construction of the sewer collection system, and the construction of relatively independent drainage system and sewer sewage treatment system to achieve a wide range sewage treatment and reuse.
    Singapore government to encourage users to use recycled water, has three of recycled water price adjustment: the beginning of 2005, the recycled water price reduced from S $ 1.30 per cubic meter to 1.15 Singapore dollars, after once again down to 1.0 Singapore dollars.
    The Singapore water charges formulated both take into account the full cost of production and supply of water, at the same time reflect the high cost of the water shortage situation and excess water supply, the highest water charges are also subject to water-saving tax. Household water monthly water consumption below 40 m3, remove the public health cost of supplies, coupled with water-saving tax and sewage charges, water charges $ 1.82 per cubic meter; monthly usage exceeds 40 cubic meters, corresponding the cost rose to 2.33 yuan per cubic meter, or up to 28%. We can see, the recycled water price is much cheaper than tap water, users can enjoy better economic use of recycled water instead of tap water.
    In 2003, Singapore Bedok and Kranji two freshmen waterworks, NEWater launched a large-scale mass production. Currently, Singapore has built the five freshmen waterworks, local NEWater total output in 2010 reached 30% of the total water supply. Singapore has more than 300 commercial enterprises using NEWater more substantial savings in industrial water.

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